Each of the Jewish holidays carries its own customs and traditions regarding the celebration of the event. Many of the holidays may be observed differently by the different strands of Judaism. Every Friday evening before sundown to Saturday evening after sundown Sabbath - שבת - the island of time that defines the Jew’s week.
All holidays are celebrated from sundown to sundown and the origin of each holiday is strongly connected to the Jewish calendar.
Some of holidays in Israel fall on specific dates whilst others fall at some point in a certain month. Understanding the calculation of dates according to the Hebrew calendar is crucial to follow the ever-changing timing of Jewish holidays and the calculation of Jewish events. So it is useful to know the differences between the Hebrew and Gregorian (civil) calendar.
- Rosh Hashanah (the first and the second days of Tishrei) - The first two days of the Jewish new year.
- Yom Kippur (the tenth day of Tishrei) also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are atonement and repentance.
- Sukkot (the fifteenth day of Tishrei) commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles, is a biblical Jewish holiday. The holiday lasts seven days in Israel and eight in the diaspora.
- Hanukkah (the twenty-fifth day of Kislev) is the Jewish Festival of Lights and it remembers the rededication of the second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.
- Pesach (Passover) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday that commemorates the exsodus from slavery. The holiday of Pesach comes in the middle of the first month of the year Nissan.
- Shavuot (The birthday of the Torah) – (the sixth of Sivan)
- Purim meaning allotment, is a Jewish cheerful feast in memory of the liberation of the Jewish people during their stay in ancient Persia. The holiday comes on the middle of the month Adar.
- Jerusalem Day (Yom Yerushalayim) – (the 28th day of Iyar) The most recent addition to the Hebrew calendar. The holiday commemorates the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the older part of the city in June 1967. Schools stay open and mark the day with festivities and learning.