1973 – "Saturday Night Massacre": United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire Watergate special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
1961 – The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.
1952 – Governor Evelyn Baring declares a state of emergency in Kenya and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising, including Jomo Kenyatta, the future first President of Kenya.
1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the cinema of the United States, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
1947 – The United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan establish diplomatic relations for the first time.
1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands, reclaiming them from the Japanese during the Second World War.
1939 – Pope Pius XII publishes his first major encyclical, entitled Summi Pontificatus.
1873 – Yale, Princeton, Columbia, and Rutgers universities draft the first code of American football rules.
1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
1781 – The Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Habsburg Monarchy.
1548 – The city of Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace) is founded by Alonso de Mendoza by appointment of the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
1989 – Colin Wilson, Canadian-American ice hockey player
1985 – Alphonso Smith, American football player
1985 – Dominic McGuire, American basketball player
1985 – Jennifer Freeman, American actress
1984 – Mitch Lucker, American singer-songwriter (d. 2012)
1982 – Katie Featherston, American actress
1979 – John Krasinski, American actor, director, and producer