In 2017 researchers at Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) announce a new record efficiency of 22.1% for perovskite solar cells.
2007 – Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first female president.
1984 – Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to perform a space walk.
1978 – Birth of Louise Joy Brown, the first human to have been born after conception by in vitro fertilisation, or IVF.
1976 – Viking program: Viking 1 takes the famous Face on Mars photo.
1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This is the start of the "Vietnamization" of the war.
1958 – The African Regroupment Party (PRA) holds its first congress in Cotonou.
1944 – World War II: Operation Spring is one of the bloodiest days for the First Canadian Army during the war.
1917 – Sir Robert Borden introduces the first income tax in Canada as a "temporary" measure (lowest bracket is 4% and highest is 25%).
1915 – RFC Captain Lanoe Hawker becomes the first British pursuit aviator to earn the Victoria Cross.
1909 – Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine from (Calais to Dover, England, United Kingdom) in 37 minutes.
1908 – Ajinomoto is founded. Kikunae Ikeda of the Tokyo Imperial University discovers that a key ingredient in kombu soup stock is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and patents a process for manufacturing it.
1898 – In the Puerto Rican Campaign, the United States seizes Puerto Rico from Spain.
1894 – The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship.
1868 – Wyoming becomes a United States territory.
1866 – The United States Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.
1861 – American Civil War: The United States Congress passes the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.
1853 – Joaquin Murrieta, the famous Californio bandit known as the "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed.
1837 – The first commercial use of an electrical telegraph is successfully demonstrated in London by William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone.
1814 – War of 1812: An American attack on Canada is repulsed.
1783 – American Revolutionary War: The war's last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by a preliminary peace agreement.
1538 – The city of Guayaquil is founded by the Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana and given the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil.
1467 – The Battle of Molinella: The first battle in Italy in which firearms are used extensively.
1987 – Richard Bachman, American ice hockey player. Richard Bachman is a pen name used by horror fiction author Stephen King.
1985 – James Lafferty, American actor and athlete. He is best known for his portrayal of Nathan Scott on The CW teen drama television series One Tree Hill from 2003 to 2012.
1982 – Brad Renfro, American actor and musician (d. 2008). He made his film debut at the age of 11 in the lead role in The Client, and went on to star in 21 feature films.
1981 – Conor Casey, American soccer player. Casey spent part of the 2019 season as the Rapids interim head coach after the firing of Anthony Hudson on May 1.
1981 – Mac Lethal, American rapper and producer. David McCleary Sheldon (born July 25, 1981), known professionally as Mac Lethal, is an American rapper and songwriter from Kansas City, Missouri.
1980 – David Wachs, American actor and producer. He has appeared in several TV shows, including ER, Living with Fran, Still Standing, as well as in films such as Hotel California (2008), The Last Hurrah (2009), among others.
1980 – Shawn Riggans, American baseball player. Shawn Willis Riggans (born July 25, 1980) is a former professional baseball catcher for the Tampa Bay Rays, spending parts of four seasons with the club from 2006 through 2009.
1978 – Gerard Warren, American football player, was a defensive tackle in the National Football League (NFL) for eleven seasons. He played college football for the University of Florida.
1976 – Javier Vázquez, Puerto Rican-American baseball player. He played for the Florida Marlins (2011), Atlanta Braves (2009), Chicago White Sox (2006–2008), Arizona Diamondbacks (2005), New York Yankees (2004, 2010), and Montreal Expos (1998–2003).
1975 – Brian Gibson, American bass player. Brian Gibson is the name of:
1974 – Lauren Faust, American animator, producer, and screenwriter. Lauren Faust (born July 25, 1974) is an American animator and writer, best known as the creator of the animated series My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic for Hasbro, as well as for working frequently with her husband Craig McCracken.
1971 – Billy Wagner, American baseball player and coach. William Edward Wagner (born July 25, 1971 in Marion, Virginia), nicknamed "Billy the Kid", is an American former professional baseball pitcher who played 16 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB).
1971 – Roger Creager, American singer-songwriter. Roger Creager (born July 25, 1971) is a Texas country music singer and songwriter originating from Corpus Christi, Texas.
1971 – Tracy Murray, American basketball player. Tracy Lamont Murray (born July 25, 1971) is a retired American professional basketball player who currently works as an analyst with the UCLA Sports Network for all of the games during the UCLA Bruins' basketball season. He worked as an assistant coach for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA) for the 2015–16 NBA season
1969 – Jon Barry, American basketball player and sportscaster. Jon Alan Barry (born July 25, 1969) is an American former basketball player and current television analyst for ABC and ESPN.
1967 – Matt LeBlanc, American actor and producer. For his work on Friends, LeBlanc received three Emmy Award nominations.
1966 – Maureen Herman, American bass player. Maureen Herman (born July 25, 1966) is an American writer and a musician known as the bassist for the Minneapolis-based band Babes in Toyland from 1992 until 1996 and from 2014 until August 2015.
1965 – Illeana Douglas, American actress, director, producer, and screenwriter. Notable works include work in a 2001 episode of Six Feet Under – for which she received a Primetime Emmy nomination as Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series and won the Best Guest Actress in a Drama Series award from OFTA, the Online Film & Television Association – and her work in the TV series Action opposite Jay Mohr – for which she won a Satellite Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy.
1964 – Anne Applebaum, American journalist and author. She is a visiting Professor of Practice at the London School of Economics, where she runs Arena, a project on propaganda and disinformation.
1964 – Breuk Iversen, American designer and journalist. He is famous for his production, with Jan McLaughlin, at the Dam Stuhltrager Gallery of the "Salon des Refuses": the Offal Project, a site-specific exhibit that explored issues of economy, aesthetics, politics and popular culture through society's by-products.
1964 – Tony Granato, American ice hockey player and coach. Anthony Lewis Granato (born July 25, 1964) is an American former professional ice hockey left winger and current head coach of the Wisconsin Badgers men's ice hockey team.
1962 – Doug Drabek, American baseball player and coach. Douglas Dean Drabek (born July 25, 1962) is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher and current Pitching Coach for the Jackson Generals.
1960 – Justice Howard, American photographer. Justice Howard (born 1960 in San Francisco, California) is an American photographer best known for her work shooting erotica, pin-up and celebrities.
1959 – Geoffrey Zakarian, American chef and author. He is featured on several television programs on the Food Network, including Chopped and in 2011, The Next Iron Chef, where he won the right to join Iron Chef America.
1958 – Alexei Filippenko, American astrophysicist and academic. Alexei Vladimir "Alex" Filippenko (/fɪlɪˈpɛnkoʊ/; born July 25, 1958) is an American astrophysicist and professor of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley.
1958 – Thurston Moore, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer. Thurston Joseph Moore (born July 25, 1958) is an American musician best known as a member of Sonic Youth.
1956 – Frances Arnold, American scientist and engineer. In 2018, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering the use of directed evolution to engineer enzymes.
1955 – Randall Bewley, American guitarist and songwriter (d. 2009), was the guitarist for the Athens, Georgia band Pylon. Born in Bradenton, Florida, United States.
1954 – Walter Payton, American football player and race car driver (d. 1999), was an American professional football player who was a running back for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL) for thirteen seasons. Payton was known around the NFL as "Sweetness".
1953 – Robert Zoellick, American banker and politician, 14th United States Deputy Secretary of State, was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012. He was previously a managing director of Goldman Sachs, United States Deputy Secretary of State (resigning on July 7, 2006) and U.S.
1952 – Eduardo Souto de Moura, Portuguese architect, designed the Estádio Municipal de Braga, was the recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2011 and the Wolf Prize in Arts in 2013. Along with Fernando Távora and Álvaro Siza, he is one of the alumni of the Porto School of Architecture, where he was appointed a Professor.
1951 – Verdine White, American bass player and producer. Verdine White (born July 25, 1951) is an American musician, best known as the longtime bassist for Earth, Wind & Fire.
1948 – Steve Goodman, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1984), was an American folk music singer-songwriter from Chicago. He wrote the song "City of New Orleans," which was recorded by Arlo Guthrie and many others including Joan Baez, John Denver, The Highwaymen, and Judy Collins; in 1985, it received a Grammy award for best country song, as performed by Willie Nelson.
1940 – Richard Ballantine, American-English journalist and author (d. 2013), was a cycling writer, journalist and cycling advocate. Born in America, the son of Ian and Betty Ballantine of Ballantine Books, and educated at the Browning School in New York and Columbia University, he principally resided in London, England.
1935 – Larry Sherry, American baseball player and coach (d. 2006), was an American right-handed relief pitcher in Major League Baseball who spent most of his career with the Los Angeles Dodgers and Detroit Tigers. He was named the Most Valuable Player of the 1959 World Series as the Dodgers won their first championship since relocating from Brooklyn just two years earlier.
1934 – Don Ellis, American trumpet player and composer (d. 1978), was an American jazz trumpeter, drummer, composer, and bandleader. He is best known for his extensive musical experimentation, particularly in the area of time signatures.
1932 – Paul J. Weitz, American captain, pilot, and astronaut, was an American naval officer and aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, who flew into space twice. He was a member of the three-man crew who flew on Skylab 2, the first crewed Skylab mission.
1930 – Annie Ross, Scottish-American singer and actress. Annabelle Allan Short (born 25 July 1930), known professionally as Annie Ross, is a British-American singer and actress, best known as a member of the jazz vocal trio Lambert, Hendricks & Ross.
1930 – Herbert Scarf, American economist and academic (d. 2015), was an American mathematical economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University.
1927 – Midge Decter, American journalist and author. Midge Rosenthal Decter (born July 25, 1927) is an American journalist and author.
1926 – Whitey Lockman, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 2009). Carroll Walter "Whitey" Lockman (July 25, 1926 – March 17, 2009) was a player, coach, manager and front office executive in American Major League Baseball.
1925 – Benny Benjamin, American R&B drummer (The Funk Brothers) (d. 1969), was an American musician, most notable as the primary drummer for the Motown studio band known as The Funk Brothers. He was a native of Birmingham, Alabama.
1925 – Jerry Paris, American actor and director (d. 1986), was an American actor and director best known for playing Jerry Helper, the dentist and next-door neighbor of Rob and Laura Petrie, on The Dick Van Dyke Show.
1924 – Frank Church, American lawyer and politician (d. 1984). A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Idaho from 1957 to 1981.
1923 – Edgar Gilbert, American mathematician and theorist (d. 2013), was an American mathematician and coding theorist, a longtime researcher at Bell Laboratories whose accomplishments include the Gilbert–Varshamov bound in coding theory, the Gilbert–Elliott model of bursty errors in signal transmission, and the Erdős–Rényi model for random graphs.
1923 – Estelle Getty, American actress (d. 2008), was an American actress and comedian. She was known for her portrayal of the sarcastic and quick-witted senior citizen Sophia Petrillo on The Golden Girls (1985 – 1992), a role she reprised for appearances on Empty Nest (1993 – 1995), The Golden Palace (1992 – 1993), Blossom (1990–1995), and Nurses (1991 – 1994).
1921 – Adolph Herseth, American soldier and trumpet player (d. 2013), was principal trumpet in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1948 until 2001, and served as principal trumpet emeritus from 2001 until his retirement in 2004.
1918 – Jane Frank, American painter and sculptor (d. 1986), was an American multidisciplinary artist, known as a painter, sculptor, mixed media artist, illustrator, and textile artist. Her landscape-like, mixed-media abstract paintings are included in public collections, including those of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.
1915 – Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., American lieutenant and pilot (d. 1944), was a United States Navy lieutenant. He was killed in action during World War II while serving as a land-based patrol bomber pilot, and was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.
1914 – Woody Strode, American football player and actor (d. 1994), was an American athlete and actor. He was a decathlete and football star who was one of the first African American players in the National Football League in the postwar era.
1908 – Jack Gilford, American actor (d. 1990), was an American Broadway, film and television actor. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Save the Tiger (1973).
1906 – Johnny Hodges, American saxophonist and clarinet player (d. 1970), was an American alto saxophonist, best known for solo work with Duke Ellington's big band. He played lead alto in the saxophone section for many years.
1902 – Eric Hoffer, American philosopher and author (d. 1983), was an American moral and social philosopher. He was the author of ten books and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in February 1983.
1901 – Lila Lee, American actress and singer (d. 1973), was a prominent screen actress, primarily a leading lady, of the silent film and early sound film eras.
1901 – Ruth Krauss, American author and poet (d. 1993), was an American writer of children's books, including The Carrot Seed, and of theatrical poems for adult readers. Many of her books are still in print.
1896 – Jack Perrin, American actor and stuntman (d. 1967), was an American actor specializing in Westerns.
1894 – Walter Brennan, American actor (d. 1974), was an American actor and singer. He won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1936, 1938, and 1940, making him one of only three male actors to win three Academy Awards.
1886 – Edward Cummins, American golfer (d. 1926), was an American golfer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics.
1882 – George S. Rentz, American commander (d. 1942), was a United States Navy chaplain who served during World War I and World War II. For selfless heroism following the loss of USS Houston (CA-30) in the Battle of Sunda Strait, he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross— the only Navy Chaplain to be so honored during World War II.
1870 – Maxfield Parrish, American painter and illustrator (d. 1966), was an American painter and illustrator active in the first half of the 20th century. He is known for his distinctive saturated hues and idealized neo-classical imagery.
1867 – Alexander Rummler, American painter (d. 1959), was an American painter best known for his work on murals and billboards.
1857 – Frank J. Sprague, American naval officer and inventor (d. 1934), was an American naval officer and inventor who contributed to the development of the electric motor, electric railways, and electric elevators. His contributions were especially important in promoting urban development by increasing the size cities could reasonably attain (through better transportation) and by allowing greater concentration of business in commercial sections (through use of electric elevators in skyscrapers).
1844 – Thomas Eakins, American painter, sculptor, and photographer (d. 1916), was an American realist painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He is widely acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history.
1806 – Maria Weston Chapman, American abolitionist (d. 1885). She was elected to the executive committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1839 and from 1839 until 1842, she served as editor of the anti-slavery journal The Non-Resistant.
1750 – Henry Knox, American general and politician, 1st United States Secretary of War (d. 1806), was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.
2015 – Bob Kauffman, American basketball player and coach (b. 1946)
2015 – Jacques Andreani, French diplomat, French ambassador to the United States (b. 1929)
2014 – Bel Kaufman, German-American author and academic (b. 1911)
2013 – Hugh Huxley, English-American biologist and academic (b. 1924)
2013 – Walter De Maria, American sculptor, illustrator, and composer (b. 1935)
2013 – William J. Guste, American lawyer and politician (b. 1922)
2012 – Greg Mohns, American-Canadian football player and coach (b. 1950)
2009 – Vernon Forrest, American boxer (b. 1971)
2008 – Randy Pausch, American computer scientist and educator (b. 1960)
2008 – Tracy Hall, American chemist and academic (b. 1919)