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Sunday 8 January 2023 Calendar with holidays, observances and special days

January 8 Events

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January 8, year 2023; January 8, year 2024 see also: January 8, year 2016; January 8, year 2017; January 8, year 2018; January 8, year 2019; January 8, year 2020; January 8, year 2021; January 8, year 2022 calendar
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Holidays and observances


  • 2004 – The RMS Queen Mary 2, the largest ocean liner ever built, is christened by her namesake's granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II.
  • 2002 – President George W. Bush signs into law the No Child Left Behind Act.
  • 1994 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov on Soyuz TM-18 leaves for Mir. He would stay on the space station until March 22, 1995, for a record 437 days in space.
  • 1992 – US President George H. W. Bush vomits on Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa
  • 1981 – A local farmer reports a UFO sighting in Trans-en-Provence, France, claimed to be "perhaps the most completely and carefully documented sighting of all time".
  • 1975 – Ella T. Grasso becomes Governor of Connecticut, the first woman to serve as a Governor in the United States other than by succeeding her husband.
  • 1973 – Watergate scandal: The trial of seven men accused of illegal entry into Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate begins.
  • 1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson declares a "War on Poverty" in the United States.
  • 1963 – Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is exhibited in the United States for the first time, at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
  • 1920 – The steel strike of 1919 ends in a complete failure for the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers labor union.
  • 1918 – U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announces his "Fourteen Points" for the aftermath of World War I.
  • 1912 – The African National Congress is founded.
  • 1904 – The Blackstone Library is dedicated, marking the beginning of the Chicago Public Library system.
  • 1889 – Herman Hollerith is issued US patent #395,791 for the 'Art of Applying Statistics' — his punched card calculator.
  • 1877 – Crazy Horse and his warriors fight their last battle against the United States Cavalry at Wolf Mountain, Montana Territory.
  • 1867 – African American men are granted the right to vote in Washington, D.C.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Springfield
  • 1835 – The United States national debt is zero for the only time.
  • 1828 – The Democratic Party of the United States is organized.
  • 1815 – War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson leads American forces in victory over the British.
  • 1790 – George Washington delivers the first State of the Union address in New York City.
  • 1547 – The first Lithuanian-language book, Simple Words of Catechism, is published in Königsberg.
  • 1297 – François Grimaldi, disguised as a monk, leads his men to capture the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco, establishing his family as the rulers of Monaco.


  • 2000 – Noah Cyrus, American actress and singer. In 2016, she released her debut single "Make Me (Cry)", featuring vocals from Labrinth.
  • 1992 – Stefanie Dolson, American basketball player. She was drafted 6th overall in the 2014 WNBA Draft. Dolson played Center for the UConn women's basketball team, and won back to back national championships in 2013 and 2014
  • 1990 – Jeff Allen, American football player. Jeff Allen (born Jeffrey Allen, 23 April 1946, Matlock, Derbyshire) is an English rock and blues session drummer.
  • 1984 – Jeff Francoeur, American baseball player. Jeffrey Braden Francoeur (/fræŋˈkʊər/; born January 8, 1984), nicknamed "Frenchy", is an American former professional baseball right fielder, who played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Atlanta Braves, New York Mets, Texas Rangers, Kansas City Royals, San Francisco Giants, San Diego Padres, Philadelphia Phillies, and Miami Marlins.
  • 1983 – Chris Masters, American wrestler and actor. Christopher Todd Mordetzky (born January 8, 1983) is an American professional wrestler.
  • 1982 – Gaby Hoffmann, American actress. Gabrielle Mary Antonia Hoffmann (born January 8, 1982) is an American film and television actress best known for her roles on Sleepless in Seattle, Now and Then, Transparent and Girls, which garnered her nominations for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series and Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series in 2015, respectively.
  • 1979 – Torry Castellano, American drummer. Torrance Heather Castellano (born January 8, 1979, in San Francisco, California) is an American percussionist and the former drummer of The Donnas.
  • 1976 – Carl Pavano, American baseball player. He was a member of the 2003 World Series champions and appeared in the 2004 Major League Baseball All-Star Game.
  • 1973 – Mike Cameron, American baseball player. Michael Terrance Cameron (born January 8, 1973) is an American former professional Major League Baseball outfielder.
  • 1971 – Jason Giambi, American baseball player. Jason Gilbert Giambi (/dʒiˈɑːmbi/; born January 8, 1971) is an American former professional baseball first baseman and designated hitter.
  • 1969 – J. Hunter Johnson, American game designer, author, and translator. He has translated many game rules and websites from German for Mayfair Games.
  • 1967 – R. Kelly, American singer-songwriter, record producer, and former professional basketball player. Robert Sylvester Kelly (born January 8, 1967), known professionally as R.
  • 1960 – Dave Weckl, American drummer. Dave Weckl (born January 8, 1960) is an American jazz fusion drummer and leader of the Dave Weckl Band.
  • 1960 – Lee Tomboulian, American pianist, accordion player, composer, and educator. Leland Diran Tomboulian (born January 8, 1960) is an American jazz pianist, accordionist, composer, arranger and educator.
  • 1959 – Keith Rodden, American NASCAR crew chief. He currently works for Hendrick Motorsports in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series, for whom he recently served as crew chief of the No. 5 car.
  • 1958 – Betsy DeVos, American businesswoman and politician, 11th Secretary of Education. She was Republican National Committeewoman for Michigan from 1992 to 1997 and served as chair of the Michigan Republican Party from 1996 to 2000, and was re-elected to the post in 2003.
  • 1953 – Bruce Sutter, American baseball player. Howard Bruce Sutter (/ˈsuːtər/; born January 8, 1953) is an American former professional baseball pitcher who played 12 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) between 1976 and 1988.
  • 1952 – Mel Reynolds, American academic and politician. He resigned in October 1995 after a jury convicted him of sexual assault charges related to sex with an underage campaign worker.
  • 1952 – Vladimir Feltsman, Russian-American pianist and educator. Vladimir Oskarovich Feltsman (Russian: Владимир Оскарович Фельцман, Vladimir Oskarovič Feltsman (born 1952) is a Russian-American classical pianist, particularly noted for his devotion to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach.
  • 1951 – John McTiernan, American director and producer. His later well-known films include the action-comedy-fantasy film Last Action Hero (1993), the action film sequel Die Hard with a Vengeance (1995), the heist film-remake The Thomas Crown Affair (1999), and The 13th Warrior (1999).
  • 1951 – Karen Tei Yamashita, American author and academic. Karen Tei Yamashita (Japanese: 山下てい, Born January 8, 1951 in Oakland, California) is a Japanese-American writer.
  • 1949 – John Podesta, American lawyer and politician, 20th White House Chief of Staff. John David Podesta Jr. (born January 8, 1949) is an American political consultant who served as White House Chief of Staff to President Bill Clinton from October 20, 1998 until January 20, 2001 and as Counselor to President Barack Obama from January 1, 2014 until February 13, 2015.
  • 1947 – David Bowie, English singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (d. 2016), was an English singer-songwriter and actor. He was a leading figure in the music industry and is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, acclaimed by critics and musicians, particularly for his innovative work during the 1970s.
  • 1947 – Don Bendell, American rancher and author. Don Bendell (born January 8, 1947, in Akron, Ohio) is an American author, rancher, tracker, Producer/Director/Actor and a former Green Beret.
  • 1946 – Robby Krieger, American guitarist and songwriter. Robert Alan Krieger (born January 8, 1946) is an American guitarist and singer-songwriter best known as the guitarist of the rock band The Doors; as such he has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
  • 1945 – Nancy Bond, American author and academic. It received a Newbery honor and the Welsh Tir na n-Og Award, and remains in print.
  • 1944 – Terry Brooks, American lawyer and author. Terence Dean Brooks (born January 8, 1944) is an American writer of fantasy fiction.
  • 1942 – Royce Waltman, American basketball player and coach (d. 2014), was an American college basketball coach. He was the head coach at Indiana State University from 1997 to 2007; at the University of Indianapolis from 1992 to 1997 and the 2007–08 season and at DePauw University from 1988 to 1992.
  • 1942 – Yvette Mimieux, American actress. She was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards during her acting career.
  • 1940 – Cristy Lane, American country and gospel singer. Eleanor Johnston, known by her professional name as Cristy Lane (born January 8, 1940) is an American country music and gospel music singer, best known for a number of major country hits in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, including her cover version of the song "One Day at a Time".
  • 1939 – Carolina Herrera, Venezuelan-American fashion designer. Carolina Herrera (born 8 January 1939) is a Venezuelan fashion designer known for "exceptional personal style", and for dressing various First Ladies, including Jacqueline Onassis, Laura Bush, and Michelle Obama.
  • 1939 – Ruth Maleczech, American actress (d. 2013), was an American avant-garde stage actress. She won three Obie Awards for Best Actress in her career, for Hajj (1983), Through the Leaves, (1984) and Lear (1990) and an Obie Award for Design, shared with Julie Archer, for Vanishing Pictures (1980), which she also directed.
  • 1938 – Bob Eubanks, American game show host and producer. Robert Leland Eubanks (born January 8, 1938) is an American disc jockey, television personality and game show host, best known for hosting the game show The Newlywed Game on and off since 1966.
  • 1936 – Zdeněk Mácal, Czech-American conductor. Zdeněk Mácal (Czech pronunciation: ; born 8 January 1936, Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech conductor.
  • 1935 – Elvis Presley, American singer, guitarist, and actor (d. 1977), was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King".
  • 1935 – Lewis H. Lapham, American publisher, founded Lapham's Quarterly. Lewis Henry Lapham (/ˈlæpəm/; born January 8, 1935) is an American writer.
  • 1934 – Alexandra Ripley, American author (d. 2004), was an American writer best known as the author of Scarlett (1991), written as a sequel to Gone with the Wind. Her first novel was Who's the Lady in the President's Bed? (1972).
  • 1934 – Gene Freese, American baseball player and manager (d. 2013), was an American professional baseball third baseman, who was widely noted as a journeyman. Freese played in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates (twice), St.
  • 1933 – Charles Osgood, American soldier and journalist. Charles Osgood Wood III (born January 8, 1933), known professionally as Charles Osgood, is a retired American radio and television commentator and writer.
  • 1933 – Nolan Miller, American fashion and jewelry designer (d. 2012), was an American fashion and jewelry designer on QVC and a television costume designer best known for his work on the long-running 1980s series Dynasty, its spin-off series The Colbys and the 1991 miniseries Dynasty: The Reunion. He collaborated on many projects with television producers Aaron Spelling and Douglas S.
  • 1933 – Willie Tasby, American baseball player, was a former professional baseball player. Tasby played with the Baltimore Orioles, Boston Red Sox, Washington Senators, and Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball (MLB).
  • 1931 – Clarence Benjamin Jones, American lawyer and scholar. Clarence Benjamin Jones (born January 8, 1931) is the former personal counsel, advisor, draft speech writer and close friend of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • 1928 – Luther Perkins, American country guitarist (d. 1968), was an American country music guitarist and a member of the Tennessee Three, the backup band for singer Johnny Cash. Perkins was an iconic figure in what would become known as rockabilly music.
  • 1928 – Slade Gorton, American colonel, lawyer, and politician, 14th Attorney General of Washington. Senator from Washington state from 1981 to 1987, and from 1989 to 2001.
  • 1926 – Evelyn Lear, American operatic soprano (d. 2012). Between 1959 and 1992, she appeared in more than forty operatic roles, appeared with every major opera company in the United States and won a Grammy Award in 1966.
  • 1926 – Hanae Mori, Japanese fashion designer. Legion of Honour (France) (1989)
  • 1926 – Soupy Sales, American comedian and actor (d. 2009), was an American comedian, actor, radio/television personality, and jazz aficionado. He was best known for his local and network children's television show Lunch with Soupy Sales (1953–1966), a series of comedy sketches frequently ending with Sales receiving a pie in the face, which became his trademark.
  • 1924 – Benjamin Lees, Chinese-American soldier and composer (d. 2010), was an American composer of classical music.
  • 1923 – Giorgio Tozzi, American opera singer and actor (d. 2011), was an American operatic bass. He was a mainstay for many years with the Metropolitan Opera, and sang principal bass roles in nearly every major opera house worldwide.
  • 1923 – Joseph Weizenbaum, German-American computer scientist and author (d. 2008), was a German American computer scientist and a professor at MIT. The Weizenbaum Award is named after him.
  • 1923 – Larry Storch, American actor and comedian. Lawrence Samuel Storch (born January 8, 1923) is an American actor, voice actor, and comedian, best known for his comic television roles, including voice-over work for cartoon shows, such as Mr.
  • 1922 – Dale D. Myers, American engineer (d. 2015), was an American aerospace engineer who was Deputy Administrator of NASA, serving between October 6, 1986 and May 13, 1989. He was born in Kansas City, Missouri, and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Washington in Seattle in 1943.
  • 1920 – Richard Benedict, American actor and director (d. 1984), was an Italian-American television and film actor and director.
  • 1917 – Peter Matthew Hillsman Taylor, American novelist, short story writer, and playwright (d. 1994). Born and raised in Tennessee and St.
  • 1915 – Walker Cooper, American baseball player and manager (d. 1991), was an American professional baseball player and manager. He played in Major League Baseball as a catcher from 1940 to 1957, most notably as a member of the St.
  • 1912 – José Ferrer, Puerto Rican-American actor and director (d. 1992), was a Puerto Rican actor and theatre and film director. He was the first Puerto Rican-born actor, as well as the first Hispanic actor, to win an Academy Award (in 1950 for Cyrano de Bergerac).
  • 1912 – Lawrence Walsh, Canadian-American lawyer, judge, and politician, 4th United States Deputy Attorney General (d. 2014), was an American lawyer, a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Deputy Attorney General who was appointed Independent Counsel in December 1986 to investigate the Iran–Contra affair during the Reagan Administration.
  • 1911 – Gypsy Rose Lee, American actress, dancer, and author (d. 1970), was an American burlesque entertainer and vedette famous for her striptease act. Also an actress, author, and playwright, her 1957 memoir was adapted into the 1959 stage musical Gypsy.
  • 1906 – Serge Poliakoff, Russian-French painter (d. 1969), was a Russian-born French modernist painter belonging to the 'New' Ecole de Paris (Tachisme).
  • 1904 – Tampa Red, American guitarist and songwriter (d. 1981), was an American Chicago blues musician.
  • 1902 – Carl Rogers, American psychologist and academic (d. 1987), was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology. Rogers is widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956.
  • 1900 – Dorothy Adams, American character actress (d. 1988), was an American character actress of stage, film and television.
  • 1896 – Jaromír Weinberger, Czech-American composer and academic (d. 1967), was a Czech born, naturalized American composer.
  • 1888 – Richard Courant, German-American mathematician and academic (d. 1972). He is best known by the general public for the book What is Mathematics?, co-written with Herbert Robbins.
  • 1885 – A. J. Muste, Dutch-American pastor and activist (d. 1967), was a Dutch-born American clergyman and political activist. Muste is best remembered for his work in the labor movement, pacifist movement, antiwar movement, and the Civil Rights Movement.
  • 1883 – Patrick J. Hurley, American general, politician, and diplomat, 51st United States Secretary of War (d. 1963), was a highly decorated American soldier with the rank of Major General, statesman, and diplomat. He was the United States Secretary of War from 1929 to 1933.
  • 1881 – Henrik Shipstead, American dentist and politician (d. 1960), was an American politician. He served in the United States Senate from March 4, 1923, to January 3, 1947, from the state of Minnesota in the 68th, 69th, 70th, 71st, 72nd, 73rd, 74th, 75th, 76th, 77th, 78th, and 79th Congresses.
  • 1881 – Linnie Marsh Wolfe, American librarian and author (d. 1945). She won the 1946 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography for her 1945 biography of John Muir titled Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir (New York: A.
  • 1867 – Emily Greene Balch, American economist and author, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1961), was an American economist, sociologist and pacifist. Balch combined an academic career at Wellesley College with a long-standing interest in social issues such as poverty, child labor, and immigration, as well as settlement work to uplift poor immigrants and reduce juvenile delinquency.
  • 1866 – William G. Conley, American educator and politician, 18th Governor of West Virginia (d. 1940), was an American lawyer and politician who served as the Attorney General of West Virginia of West Virginia (1908-1913) and 18th Governor of West Virginia as a Republican (1929 to 1933).
  • 1865 – Winnaretta Singer, American philanthropist (d. 1943), was an American-born heir to the Singer sewing machine fortune. She used this to fund a wide range of causes, notably a musical salon where her protégés included Debussy and Ravel, and numerous public health projects in Paris, where she lived most of her life.
  • 1862 – Frank Nelson Doubleday, American publisher, founded the Doubleday Publishing Company (d. 1934). Frank Nelson Doubleday (January 8, 1862 – January 30, 1934), known to friends and family as “Effendi”, founded the Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897, which later operated under other names.
  • 1854 – Fanny Bullock Workman, American mountaineer, geographer, and cartographer (d. 1925), was an American geographer, cartographer, explorer, travel writer, and mountaineer, notably in the Himalayas. She was one of the first female professional mountaineers; she not only explored but also wrote about her adventures.
  • 1852 – James Milton Carroll, American pastor and author (d. 1931), was an American Baptist pastor, leader, historian, author, and educator.
  • 1843 – John H. Moffitt, American sergeant and politician, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1926), was a United States Representative from New York and the recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Civil War.
  • 1836 – Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch-English painter and academic (d. 1912), was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship. Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there.
  • 1830 – Albert Bierstadt, German-American painter and educator (d. 1902), was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. He joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion to paint the scenes.
  • 1821 – James Longstreet, American general and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Turkey (d. 1904), was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".
  • 1805 – John Bigler, American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, 3rd Governor of California (d. 1871). A Democrat, he served as the third governor of California from 1852 to 1856 and was the first California governor to complete an entire term in office, as well as the first to win re-election.
  • 1805 – Orson Hyde, American religious leader, 3rd President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (d. 1878), was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. He was the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1847 to 1875 and was a missionary of the LDS Church in the United States, Europe, and the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1792 – Lowell Mason, American composer and educator (d. 1872), was a leading figure in American church music, the composer of over 1600 hymn tunes, many of which are often sung today. His best-known work includes an arrangement of Joy to the World and the tune Bethany, which sets the hymn text Nearer, My God, to Thee.
  • 1763 – Edmond-Charles Genêt, French-American translator and diplomat (d. 1834), was the French envoy to the United States during the French Revolution. His actions on arriving in the United States led to a major political and international incident, which was termed the Citizen Genêt Affair.
  • 1638 – Elisabetta Sirani, Italian painter (d. 1665), was an Italian Baroque painter and printmaker who died in unexplained circumstances at the age of 27. She was a seminal artist in early modern Bologna, who established an academy for other women artists.


  • 2016 – Maria Teresa de Filippis, Italian race car driver (b. 1926)
  • 2015 – Andraé Crouch, American singer-songwriter, producer, and pastor (b. 1942)
  • 2015 – Patsy Garrett, American actress and singer (b. 1921)
  • 2014 – Madeline Gins, American poet and architect (b. 1941)
  • 2014 – Vicente T. Blaz, American general and politician (b. 1928)
  • 2013 – Jeanne Manford, American educator and activist, co-founded PFLAG (b. 1920)
  • 2012 – Dave Alexander, American singer and pianist (b. 1938)
  • 2012 – John Madin, English architect, designed the Birmingham Central Library (b. 1924)
  • 2010 – Art Clokey, American animator, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
  • 2007 – Iwao Takamoto, American animator, director, and producer (b. 1925)
  • 2007 – Jane Bolin, American lawyer and judge (b. 1908)
  • 2007 – Yvonne De Carlo, Canadian-American actress and singer (b. 1922)
  • 2004 – John A. Gambling, American radio host (b. 1930)
  • 1997 – Melvin Calvin, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
  • 1996 – Howard Taubman, American author and critic (b. 1907)
  • 1994 – Harvey Haddix, American baseball player and coach (b. 1925)
  • 1994 – Pat Buttram, American actor and comedian (b. 1915)
  • 1990 – Bernard Krigstein, American illustrator (b. 1919)
  • 1983 – Gale Page, American actress (b. 1910)
  • 1983 – Tom McCall, American journalist and politician, 30th Governor of Oregon (b. 1913)
  • 1980 – John Mauchly, American physicist and academic (b. 1907)
  • 1979 – Sara Carter, American singer-songwriter and harp player (b. 1898)
  • 1975 – Richard Tucker, American tenor (b. 1913)
  • 1972 – Kenneth Patchen, American poet and author (b. 1911)
  • 1963 – Kay Sage, American painter (b. 1898)
  • 1961 – Schoolboy Rowe, American baseball player and coach (b. 1910)
  • 1958 – Mary Colter, American architect, designed the Desert View Watchtower (b. 1869)
  • 1956 – Jim Elliot, American missionary and martyr (b. 1928)
  • 1954 – Eduard Wiiralt, Estonian-French painter and illustrator (b. 1898)
  • 1952 – Antonia Maury, American astronomer and astrophysicist (b. 1866)
  • 1950 – Joseph Schumpeter, Czech-American economist and academic (b. 1883)
  • 1944 – William Kissam Vanderbilt II, American lieutenant and sailor (b. 1878)
  • 1942 – Joseph Franklin Rutherford, American lawyer and religious leader (b. 1869)
  • 1938 – Johnny Gruelle, American author and illustrator (b. 1880)
  • 1925 – George Bellows, American painter (b.1925)
  • 1918 – Ellis H. Roberts, American journalist and politician, 20th Treasurer of the United States (b. 1827)
  • 1916 – Ada Rehan, Irish-American actress (b. 1860)
  • 1914 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American general and 30th Governor of Kentucky (b. 1823)
  • 1896 – Paul Verlaine, French poet (b. 1844)
  • 1896 – William Rainey Marshall, American banker and politician, 5th Governor of Minnesota (b. 1825)
  • 1880 – Emperor Norton, English-American businessman (b. 1811)
  • 1825 – Eli Whitney, American engineer and theorist, invented the cotton gin (b. 1765)
  • 1775 – John Baskerville, English printer and type designer (b. 1706)
  • 1642 – Galileo Galilei, Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher (b. 1564)
  • 1570 – Philibert de l'Orme, French sculptor and architect, designed the Château d'Anet (b. 1510)
  • 1337 – Giotto, Italian painter and architect, designed Scrovegni Chapel and Giotto's Campanile (b. 1266)
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